Pest attack is one of the limiting factors for increasing agricultural production which in this case is the maintenance of orchids. To control pests are often used chemical pesticides with excessive doses. Whereas the accumulation of harmful chemical compounds can have a negative impact on environmental sustainability and human health. In the midst of the cultivation of organic farming, the efforts of safe pest control for producers / farmers and consumers and profitable farmers, a top priority. One alternative control is the use of fungi causing diseases in insects (bioinsectisida), the fungi of insect pathogen Beauveria bassiana.
Beauveria bassiana mushroom is a microscopic fungus with a body of fine thread (hypha). Then the hyphae formed a colony called mycelia. This fungus can not produce its own food, therefore it is parasitic to its host insects.
The laboratory of BPTPH of the Special Province of Yogyakarta has developed and mass-produced the B. bassiana insecticide fungus as a natural insecticide. Based on the study of the fungus B. bassiana effectively control the pest of the pest, the brown planthopper, and the aphids sp. However, it is not likely to be effective when tested on insect orchid insects such as elephant lice.
Working system that is fungal spores B. bassiana enter the insect body insects through the skin, digestive tract, spiracel and other holes. In addition, inoculum fungus attached to the body of host insects can germinate and develop a sprout tube, then enter through the cuticle of insect body. The penetration is done mechanically and / or chemically by removing enzymes or toxins. This fungus will then remove toxins beauverin which makes damage to the body tissues of insects. Within days, the insects will die. After that, mycelia fungus will grow to all parts of the body of insects. Insects infested with B. bassiana fungus will die with the body hardened like a mummy and covered by white hyphae threads.
It has been reported that more than 175 types of pest insects are hosted by the B. bassiana fungus. Based on the results of this fungus study effectively controlling the pest of walang sangit (Leptocorisa oratorius) and brown stem rhizome (Nilaparvata lugens) on rice plants and pests of aphids (Aphids sp.) On vegetable crops.
Some of the benefits of insect bone fungus B. bassiana as a pesticide that is:
- Selective against targeted insects so as not to harm other non targeted insects, such as predators, parasitoids, pollinating insects, and useful insects of honeybees.
- It leaves no toxic residues on agricultural produce, in soil or in natural water flows.
- Does not cause phytotoxins (poisoning) in plants.
- Easily manufactured with a simple technique.
The application technique is quite easy, by taking 2-3 grams of formulation and suspended in 1 ltr water, add 3 spoons of sugar per tank, spray time in the afternoon. In one package of B. bassiana formulations, containing 100 grams of solid formulation. Itupun can be proliferated conventionally, thus more saving expenditure. Finally, although the success of the biological insecticide from this fungus has had a positive impact on the control of plant pest insects and environmental safety. But in its application in the community is still minimal, so it requires more intensive socialization efforts.